Carlos Leonardo A. Céspedes A., did his basic, high school and Bachelor of science at Baptist College in Temuco City, Chile. Graduate from Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile as Teacher of Science (Major, Chemistry mention) in 1982, then completed his Master (1988) and Doctoral degrees in Chemical Sciences (1994) at University of Concepción, Concepción City, in Chile, under supervision of Prof. Mario Silva O. (Ph.D., Imperial College, U. of London). From March, 1993 worked in Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco City, Chile. During 1996 was transferred to Mexico City (UNAM) for a postdoctoral position until 1998, from 1999 to 2000 was named Associated Researcher, and from 2001 to 2005 was Titular Researcher step A in the Chemistry Institute at UNAM. From January to December 2006 was Professor and Titular Researcher step B at FES-Iztacala, UNAM. From March 01, 2007 to January 30, 2008 Professor and Researcher at Basic Sciences Department, University of Bio Bio, Chillan, Chile. From March 01, 2008 Full Professor and Senior Researcher at Basic Sciences Department, University of Bio Bio, Chillan, Chile, until now.
Has been invited researcher at:
– University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign at Prof. David S. Seigler’s (Ph.D.) lab (Plant Biology Dept.) and at Prof. Elizabeth Jeffery (Ph.D.) Lab´s. Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, US.
– University of California at Berkeley at Prof. Isao Kubo (Ph.D.) lab (ESPM Dept.). Berkeley, CA. US.
– Universitá Degli Study di Milano at Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Industriale at Prof. Danielle Passarella (Ph.D.) lab. Milano, Italy.
– Universidad de Cadiz at Laboratorio de Alelopatia, leader Prof. Francisco A. Macias (Ph.D.). Cadiz, Spain.
– Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia. Laboratorio de Fitoquimica Grupo de Quimica Organica de Productos Naturales, Leader: Dr. Fernando Echeverri, Instituto de Quimica, SIU, Medellin, Colombia.
– Universidad Catolica de Cordoba, at Laboratorio de Quimica Fina y Productos Naturales, Leader: Dra. Cecilia Carpinella, Cordoba, Argentina.
– Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, at LABIFITO and Laboratorio Quimica Productos Naturales, Leaders: Dr. Diego Sampietro and Dr. Cesar Catalan, respectively, Tucuman, Argentina.
– Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), at Unidad de Biotecnologia y prototipos (UBIPRO) of FES-Iztacala/UNAM, at Labs of Phytochemistry, Dr. Jose Guillermo Avila, and Lab. Fisiologia Vegetal, Dr. Ignacio Peñaloza, Tlalnepantla de Baz, Mexico DF, Mexico.
– Hefei University of Technology, School of Food Science and Engineering, at Prof. Zhao-jun Wei Lab. Hefei City, Anhui Prov. P.R. China.
– University of Patras, Patras Greece.
Associate Editor (Editor Asociado de):
– Biopesticides International (Connect Journal)(Scopus/Q4)
– Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (WOS/Clarivate/Q2) (IF: 2.1/2020) (Springer)
– Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety (WOS/clarivate/Q1) (IF:3.9/2020). Elsevier
– Bol. Latinoam. Car. Plantas Med. Arom. (WOS/clarivate/Q4) (IF:0.5/2020). USACH
– Rev. Latinoam. de Quimica. (Scielo/ Q4). AMQ.
– Rev. Fitotecnia Mexicana. (Scielo/Q4). AMF
– Food Chemical and Toxicology (WOS/clarivate/Q1) (IF: 4.9/2020) (2015-presente). Elsevier.
– Industrial Crop and Products (WOS/Clarivate/Q1) (IF:4.2/2020) (2015-presente). Elsevier
– Phytochemical Analysis. Wiley.
– Food Chemistry. Elsevier.
– Antibiotics. Bentham, MDPI.
The scopes of investigation are the natural products (extracts, fractions, and secondary metabolites SM) and their applications, and the interactions of SM with enzymes, insects, microbes, plants and with different biological systems, such as insect pests and weeds.
One of the our most highly cited research is those about nutraceuticals properties of A. chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae), their leaves and fruits.
This plant grows in dense populations called “macales”, endemic from Chile together with
other two members of this family (Crinodendron patagua Mol. and C. hookerianum Gay). Common names are: Maqui, macqui, clon, maquie, queldron, koelon. Grows on rainforest areas from sea level to 1,500 m in template forest, in communities dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi – Austrocedus chilensis from central to southern of Chile and western of Argentina, this is a small tree that dominates the understory of ungrazed N. dombeyi forests together with Alstroemeria aurea, Eucryphia cordifolia, Maytenus boaria, M. chubutensis, M. disticha, Ribes magellanicum, Saxegothaea conspicua, Laurelia sempervirens, L. philippiana, Persea lingue, Cynanchum diemii,
Tristerix corymbosus and Chusquea culeou (Vazquez and Simberloff, 2002).
Previously, the alkaloids were reported in the leaves of A. chilensis (Bhakuni et al., 1976;
Cespedes et al., 1990; Cespedes et al., 1993; Watson et al, 1989; Silva et al., 1997). On the other hand, in the continuation of the general screening program of Chilean flora with bioactivities, it has been reported a number of bioactivities including antioxidant, cardioprotection, and antiinflammation among other from fruits of A. chilensis (Cespedes et al., 2008; Cespedes et al., 2009; Cespedes et al., 2010a; Cespedes et al., 2010b; Cespedes, 2010c; Cespedes et al., 2017; Cespedes et al., 2018, Bastias et al., 2019). Although it has gained popularity as an ethno-medicine for many years, it is used particularly as an anti-inflammatory agent for kidney pain, stomach ulcers, diverse digestive ailments (tumors and ulcers), fever and cicatrization injuries (Bhakuni et al., 1976; Cespedes et al., 2010b; Cespedes et al., 2010c).
Several updated studies report that fruit extracts of A. chilensis possessed anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant property, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, and antihaemolytic activities (Cespedes, et al., 2010b; Cespedes et al., 2010c; Romanucci et al., 2016; Pool-Zobel et al., 1999), inhibit LDL oxidation (Miranda-Rottmann et al., 2002), and the phytochemicals have been reported (Cespedes et al., 2010a; Brauch et al., 2016; Genskowsky et al., 2016; Ruiz et al., 2010; 2016).
Furthermore, two important enzymes involved in inflammatory response are inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). iNOS and COX-2 catalyze the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), respectively, which in turn cause sepsis, sepsis shock, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (Liu et al., 2008). Therefore, the evaluation of inhibition of the expression of these enzymes or of their products can give highlights for new knowledge about reducing inflammation and related conditions. Herein, the in vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory properties in RAW 264.7 macrophages of extracts, fractions, compounds and mixtures of phytochemicals of fruits of A. chilensis were investigated (Cespedes et al., 2017). We have ongoing diverse projects about applications of pulp, seeds, peel, and leaves of A. chilensis.
One of these fields is the plant-plant and plant-insect interaction. In the recent years (from 1990 till now), have undertaken the study of plants belonging to the Agavaceae, Asteraceae, Cactaceae, Celastraceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Meliaceae and Zygophyllaceae families endemic from America (i.e. Agavaceae: Agave, and Yucca genera. Asteraceae: Ageratina, Baccharis, Barkleyanthus, Cosmos, Gutierrezia, Haplopappus, Parthenium, Pittocaulon, Podanthus, Senecio, Stevia, Tagetes, and Tithonia genera. Cactaceae: Mamillaria, Myrtillocactus, Opuntia, Stenocereus, Pachycereus and Rhypsalis genera. Celastraceae: Mortonia and Maytenus genera. Elaeocarpaceae: Aristotelia, Crinodendron and Muntingia genera. Euphorbiaceae: Cnidoscolus, Croton, Euphorbia, Jathropa and Ricinus genera. Leguminosae: Acacia, Cassia, Erythrina, and Tephrosia genera. Meliaceae: Cedrela, Swietenia, Guarea, and Trichillia genera. Rhamnaceae: Condalia microphylla, Discaria spp., Colletia spp, Talguenea quinquenervis, Trevoa spp. Rutaceae: Casimiroa, Citrus, Ruta genera. Scrophulariaceae: Penstemon spp, Calceolaria spp. Zygophyllaceae: Larrea and Porlieria genera; searching for bioactive secondary metabolites. For instance, from Cosmos sulphureus, C. pringlei, Gutierrezia microcephala, Podanthus ovatifolius and Larrea divaricata we have isolated sesquiterpene lactones, germacrane, chromene and flavonoids metabolites, which are now under biological evaluation as insect antifeedant, allelopathic and nutraceuticals (Cespedes et al., 2000c; 2000d; 2001e; Calderon et al., 2001). From Cedrela salvadorensis, C. odorata, Maytenus spp., we have isolated nortriterpenoids with limonoid skeleton, agarofurans and diterpenoids from which we have findings with allelopathic (Cespedes et al., 1999a; 1999b; 2000a; 2001d; 2006a), herbicidal (Cespedes et al., 2001c; 2002; 2003), insect antifeedant and insecticidal activities (Cespedes et al., 2000b; Torres et al., 2003), and we are determining their mode and site of actions in esterase enzymes inhibition (i.e. acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition), (Céspedes et al., 1998; 1999a; 1999b; 1999c; 2000a; 2000b; 2001a-d), From Condalia igr activity and from Calceolaria igr activity (Muñoz et al., 2013, Cespedes et al., 2013).
Additionally, during last 10 years we are studying the phytochemicals from Calceolaria integrifolia sensu lato complex, this complex growth at Maule and Ñuble Regions at centralsouth of Chile, in addition to pharmacological and chemoecology applications these plants possess many biological, culinary, spices, and as food suplemments uses.
Phenol oxidases (PO) are key enzymes in insect cuticle sclerotization and melanization, which occupies several major roles in insect development and immunity. Arrest or even delay of these processes has devastating effects on insect viability, which has highlighted the need for the study of inhibitors of PO. Identification of PO inhibitors from natural sources, especially plants, has great appeal. Overall objectives are: 1) systematic study of our natural product library to determine which compounds inhibit insect PO, followed by optimization of these lead compounds. 2) Investigation of their inhibition mechanisms via structure-activity relationship study based on kinetic and mode of action data. 3) In-vivo studies of active in vitro compounds. Ingestion, contact and fumigation application feasibility and toxicity of compounds towards whole insects. In this field we have some approaches resulting from studies on inhibition of enzymes involved in that key processes of insect life, specially growth, molting and development of larvae and intraspecific communication of adults. The enzymes covered include structural related phytohormones (Cespedes et al., 2005b), tyrosinase inhibition (Kubo et al 2003a; 2003b) and acetylcholinesterase inhibition (Cespedes et al. 2001a; 2001b; Cespedes et al., 2015; Calderon et al., 2001). Although these approaches refer to control of insect pests, many of them can be in principle also considered suitable for medicinal chemistry studies, since the mechanism of action of these inhibitors on related enzymes is quite similar, if not equal, in both fields. Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase currently form the basis of the newest drugs available for the management of the neurodegenerative diseases; they function by correcting a deficiency of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses of the cerebral cortex. Thus, we are looking for substances of botanical origin that can help in different neurodegenerative ailments such as the multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, among others (Cespedes et al., 2006b).
Insect-Plant and Plant-plant Interactions
The plant exudates a wide range of volatile (mainly terpenes) and non-volatile compounds when wounded, chewed by insects, etc. Some of these volatile have hormonal activity (e.g., methyl jasmonate) and can elicit biochemical responses in associated plant growing nearby. In addition, these exudates could affect the developments of other plants. Many plants contain chemicals that are potentially toxic to insects that feed on them. Insects usually respond to such chemicals by avoiding them or by reducing their effects metabolically. However, many insects’ sequestering these substances uses them as chemical defenses using almost always strategies of structural chemical changes (rearrangements, oxidation, reduction, hydroxylation, methylation, etc) throughout a pool of cytochrome P450. Many different enzyme systems are known to be involved in these reactions and some systems are almost certainly ubiquitous. The best known is the system of polysubstrate monooxygenases (mixed-function oxidases). The terminal component of this system is cytochrome P-450, so called because it absorbs light maximally at around 450 nm when complexed with carbon dioxide (9). Our findings have expanded to an interest in the chemical relationship between plants and animals in chemical signaling cascades and mechanisms. We are working with the biochemical signals that may be involved in these interactions, including plant hormones (Cespedes and Marin, 2006).
Another research area is that related with the antioxidant activities of natural products. In this field we are interested mainly in the Agavaceae, Asteraceae, Bixaceae, Celastraceae, Campanulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Leguminosae and Zygophyllaceae families. There is an increasing attention to the search of new botanical sources of antioxidants as nutraceuticals implicated in pain, inflammation responses, tumorigenesis, isquemia-reperfusion, atheroschlerosis, rheumatisms, etc. Research is ongoing to better understand these specific compounds and how they are effective. Some species of these families are used in American traditional medicine to cure some diseases and as food supplement. Extensive research is needed to provide clinical proof of the efficacy of these compounds and to determine the potential toxicity that could be associated with over consumption. The assays involved are DPPH, TBARS, ABTS, ORAC, FRAP, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation with MDA, generation of the radical anion superoxide with the system hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase, generation of the radical hydroxyl by means of the system hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase, COX-1, COX-2, iNOS, and in the in-vivo inflammatory processes we are using TPA and carragenan method (Cespedes et al. 2001e; 2002; Dominguez et al., 2005).
Finally, many plants have afforded a great diversity of substances that have been used by humankind as source of food and medicine. However, the chemical nature of many natural extracts is unknown and by this reason it is important to study plant extracts in function with its nutraceutical and biocidal properties, such as Tagetes lucida for instance (Cespedes et al., 2006). A nutraceutical was defined as any substance that may be considered a food or part of a food and provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals may range from isolates nutrients, dietary supplements and secondary metabolites (1). There are a large number of secondary metabolites acting as chemical defense that the plants have development against pathogen microorganisms, therefore the search of plants with antimicrobial effects is much extended (2-3). At present many medicines have been found from botanical sources (4), and approximately 25% of the active substances of prescription in US come from plant material as vegetable and herbs, including therapeutic agents with anticholinergic, antihypertensive, and antileukemic properties (5, 6). It is estimated an amount of 20 000 species that are useful with these purposes (7, 8). Our studies on the phytochemical knowledge of American native species and the chemical structure of its secondary metabolites from aerial part extracts of some shrub and herbaceous species with biological activities show the presence of a series of compounds including flavonoids, stilbenes, phenylpropanoids and terpenes (Cespedes et al., 2005a; Cespedes et al 2001a-d; Calderon et al., 2001; Dominguez et al., 2005). However, there are not extensive studies about the antimicrobial properties of compounds and the possible use as nutraceutical. As a contribution to the antimicrobial knowledge of American native species, the aims of this part of our work is to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the extracts and secondary metabolites present in shrubs and herbs used extensively in North, Central and South America as medicinal and spice plant (Cespedes et al., 2006). We have undertaken different pathological and phytopathological strains of bacteria and fungi. The antimicrobial activities are determined for Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella sp., Shigella boydii, Shigella sp., Enterobacter aerogenes, E. agglomerans, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Yersinia enterolitica and Vibrio cholerae (strain El-tor, collections: CDC-V12, clinic case, and polluted water INDRE-206) and V. cholerae (NO-O1); and the fungi are Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum, Rhizoctonia solani and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.(Cespedes et al., 2006a; 2006b).
Tyrosinase (EC 188.8.131.52), also known as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), is a copper containing enzyme widely distributed in microorganisms, animals and plants. This mixed function oxidase catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis, the hydroxylation of a monophenol (monophenolase activity) and the conversion of an o-diphenol to the corresponding o-quinone (diphenolase activity). In our continuing search for alternative insect control agents from plants, tyrosinase inhibitors have recently been targetedbecause tyrosinase is one of the key enzymes in the insect molting process. Hence, tyrosinase inhibitors might ultimately provide clues to control insect pests by inhibiting tyrosinase, resulting in incomplete cuticle hardening and darkening. For example, this enzyme was previously reported to be strongly correlated with aphid resistance of the Solanum berthaultii plants and phenylpropanoids and their glycosides remarkably inhibit tyrosinase, and consequently have a pronounced effect on insect growth.
In a previous report some extracts together with diterpenes, triterpenes, naphthoquinones and phenylethanoids such as verbascoside were found to exhibit growth inhibitory activity against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda and fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in an artificial diet feeding assay. In previous works we have reported the insect growth regulatory activity of extract and natural compounds.This work deals with our continuing search for alternative insect control agents, here we report that the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts as well as several other secondary metabolites previously isolated from Calceolaria talcana inhibited oxidation of L-DOPA catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase.
From the standpoint of the search of biopesticides from native Chilean natural resources, we have begun the analysis of Calceolaria integrifolia sensu lato complex (Scrophulariaceae: Calceolariaceae) (Ehrhart, 2005). In this way we have reported the insect growth regulatory effects of extracts and metabolites isolated from C. talcana. Thus, extracts together with diterpenes, triterpenes, naphthoquinones and phenylethanoids as verbascoside for example were found to exhibit growth inhibitory activity against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda and fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in an artificial diet feeding assay (Muñoz et al., 2013a; 2013b), in other previous works we have reported the insect growth regulatory activity of extract and natural compounds from other plants (Alarcon et al., 2011; Cespedes et al., 2000; 2006; 2013a; Torres et al., 2003) and recently we have published a report about tyrosinase inhibitory activity by secondary metabolites and extracts from Calceolaria talcana (Muñoz et al., 2013c). The present work deals with our continuing search for alternative insect control agents, here we report that n-hexane, ethyl acetate extracts and several known secondary metabolites isolated from C. talcana and C. integrifolia were noted to inhibit the acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes.
Our initial attempt to clarify the mechanism of defense of this plant against insect attack on a molecular level has been achieved slowly due to lack of availability of sufficient plant material of C. talcana and C. integrifolia. Therefore, according to previous results obtained from the effects of extracts as growth inhibitors (Muñoz et al., 2013a), this study highlighted the characterizations as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, of extracts and secondary metabolites from this plant species.
Acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE, EC 184.108.40.206) plays a preponderate role in the activity of the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems because it catalyzes the hydrolysis of the Acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh) (Legay, 2000). Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with high incidence worldwide that mainly affects the population aged > 65 years. One of the principal factors that lead to dementia is cholinergic loss or deficiency (Francis, 2006). AChE is one of the main targets of action of drug therapies for this disease (Gandía et al., 2006). Some AChE inhibitors such as tacrine, physostigmine, donepezil and rivastigmine comprise some of the treatments that historically have been approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of this disorder (Mimica and Presecki, 2009).
Due to the chemical complexity of plants and the wide variety of associated biological activities, these are proposed as alternatives in seeking treatments for Alzheimer disease (AD). Some species of the Scrophulariaceae family have been evaluated for their capacity to inhibit the Acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE, EC 220.127.116.11), such as the methanolic extract of Verbascum xanthophoeniceum Griseb (Georgiev et al., 2011), V. mucronatum (Kahraman et al., 2010), whose fractioning led to the isolation of phenylethanoids and terpenes with AChE inhibitory activity. Also, the ethyl acetate extract of Morinda citrifolia L. has a neuroprotective effect on inhibiting cognitive deterioration caused by β-amyloid, in addition to inhibiting AChE (Muralidharan et al., 2010).
The leaves of C. talcana contain a high concentration of verbascoside, ursolic and oleanolic acid (Muñoz et al., 2013b). These compounds possess the following properties: sedative, analgesic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and AChE-inhibition (Cheng et al., 2001; Korkina, 2007; Georgiev et al., 2011). In the present work, C. talcana and C. integrifolia were evaluated as AChE inhibitors; these species are broadly used in Chilean Traditional Medicine for the treatment of digestive, diuretic, antimicrobial neurological diseases (Harborne and Baxter, 2001; Woldemichael et al., 2003; Muñoz et al., 2013a). The Araucanian people utilizes it for treating “the nerves” (an ethnomedical disease with symptoms of restlessness, insomnia, appetite loss, cardiac acceleration, and despair), and additionally for treating headache and inflammation (Montes and Wilkomirsky, 1985; Montes 1987), the last it is intimately associated with the AD.
Research Stay and Postdoctorals:
- Bioactive Natural Products Lab. Prof. Dr. José S. Calderón P., Instituto de Química, UNAM, México.
- Natural Products Chemistry and Chemical Ecology Lab. Prof. Isao Kubo, Ph. D., Environmental, Science, Policy and Management Department, Berkeley, Universidad de California, California, USA.
- Phytochemistry; chemical ecology and plant systematics laboratory. Plant Biology Department. University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
Last Positions :
- From 1984 to 1992. Prof. Graduate adviser. University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile.
- From March 1994 to Dec. 1996: Associated Prof. University of La Frontera, Temuco Chile.
- From April 1997, to March 2006: Titular Researcher “A” to Full Time. Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). (maximum level is «C»).
- From April 2006 to Dec. 2006: Titular Researcher and Professor “B” to Full time. FES-Iztacala. UNAM.
- From February 2007 to January 2008. Professor. University of Bio Bio, Chillan, Chile.
- From March 2008 until now. Full Professor and Senior Researcher, Phytochemical Ecology Lab, Basic Sciences Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bio Bio, Chillan, Chile.
Fellowships: 1985 to 1988 Fellow of Graduate College University of Concepción, Chile. Doctor Fellow in Chemistry. CONICyT, Chile. 1989 – 1992. Research Fellow, Dirección de Investigación de la U. de Concepción de 1992 a 1993.
Prize to Excellency in Scientific Research University of Bio Bio. 2017.
CÁTEDRA EXTRAORDINARIA FES-IZTACALA, UNAM, México 2003-2004.
At UNAM was «PRIDE B» and «C» («programa de primas al desempeño académico, nivel máximo “D”»), Nivel actual: “C”.
At «Sistema Nacional de Investigadores de México: SNI» is level 1. (From 1999 to date, max. level 3, valid to Nov. 2009).
«Top-Reviewer- Pharmacology», Elsevier, years: 2010-2012
Researcher of Excellence, by University of Bio Bio, winner of the prize for excellence in research within the last 10 years. Award to excellency in research in Natural Sciences by last ten years at UBB, Dec, 2017.
RESUMEN DE PRODUCTIVIDAD (Productivity):
Publicaciones – Publications: 143. (principal currents)
- Artículos publicados / published articles (en revistas sin índice de impacto, con comité editorial / without impact factor, with editorial board): 5.
- Libros / Books: 3
- Capítulos en Libro / Book chapters : 12
- Artículos en revistas WOS (ISI) / Article in WOS (ISI) Journals: 141
- en revisión (y aceptadas) / under revision: 3
- Artículos en preparación / under preparation: 5
- Presentaciones a Congresos / Congress attendees: 210.
- Conferencias Internacionales / International Lectures: 45
- www.web-science.com: From apps.isiknowledge.com/summary.do?product…
- Citation report: Author=(Cespedes C* OR Cespedes CL*), Timespan=1988-2020=SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A&HCI.
- – Sum of the times cited: (Total de citas a sus artículos) 3022
- – Sum of Times cited without self-citations: 2350
- – Average Citations per item [?]: 21.95
- – h-index[?]: 29
- Publications: 170, Reads 25038; Views: 25k, Downloads: 15296, Citations: 1895, Impact points: 148.31, RG score: 38.01; h-index: 24
- FORMACION DE RECURSOS HUMANOS
Tesis codirigidas: Nivel Licenciatura: 5. Nivel Maestría 3.
Tesis dirigidas terminadas: Licenciatura 12, Maestria : 7, Doctorado 3.
Programas: Doctorado en Ciencias biomédicas, UNAM (exámenes aprobados con honores). Magister en Ciencias Quimico-Ecologicas, U. del Bio Bio. Licenciaturas en Ciencias, U. del Bio Bio.
Dirección y guía de Estancias Sabáticas y Postdoctorales: 14.
ASOCIACIONES CIENTÍFICAS A LAS QUE PERTENECE : 12
ARBITRO (”REVIEWER”) DE REVISTAS INTERNACIONALES: 31
PROYECTOS DE INVESTIGACION : FONDECYT-CONICYT 4, DIRINVUBB 1, CONACYT 1, DGAPA-UNAM 3, otros DGAPA-PAPIIT-UNAM 5.
Líneas de Especialización e Investigación (lines of research):
(English): Chemistry of Natural Products, Chemical Ecology, Natural Insecticides-Herbicides (Biopesticides), Plant Growth Inhibitors, Plant-plant interactions, Insect-Plant Interactions, Food Chemistry: Antioxidants, antibacterial, antifungal, Nutraceuticals and preserving; Biomedicine: Enzyme inhibitors (ROS, Acetyl cholinesterase, tyrosinase, Lipoxygenase, melanin oxidase, MTT, Glutathione, etc).
(Español): Química de Productos Naturales, Química Ecológica, insecticidas y herbicidas naturales (biopesticidas), inhibidores del crecimiento de malezas (y plantas), interacciones planta-planta, planta-insecto. Química de Alimentos: antioxidantes, antibacterianos, antihongos, nutraceuticos y preservantes. Biomedicina: inhibidores de enzimas (ROS, acetilcolinesterasa, tirosinasa, melanina oxidasa, lipoxigenasa, glutationes, etc.).
Keywords: Insecticides, herbicides, antioxidants, Insect Growth Regulation, Plant Growth Regulation, enzymes, neurotoxins, secondary metabolites, antifungal, antibacterial, NUTRACEUTICALS.